Invented by M. Rafiq ISLAM, Northwest Missouri State University
The process of producing silver nanomaterials from carbohydrates involves the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. This is achieved by using a reducing agent, which is typically a carbohydrate such as glucose or starch. The reduction reaction is typically carried out in a solution containing silver ions, the reducing agent, and a stabilizing agent.
Microwave-mediated production of silver nanomaterials from carbohydrates has several advantages over traditional methods. Firstly, the process is much faster, taking only a few minutes compared to several hours for traditional methods. This is because microwaves can rapidly heat the reaction mixture, which speeds up the reduction reaction. Secondly, the process is much simpler and requires fewer steps, which reduces the overall cost of production. Finally, the process is eco-friendly, as it does not require the use of toxic chemicals or solvents.
The market for household microwave-mediated carbohydrate based production of silver nanomaterials is driven by several factors. Firstly, there is a growing demand for silver nanomaterials in various industries, including healthcare, electronics, and environmental applications. Secondly, the use of microwaves to produce silver nanomaterials from carbohydrates is a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to traditional methods, which is attractive to consumers. Finally, the simplicity and speed of the process make it ideal for household use, which has further increased its popularity.
In conclusion, the market for household microwave-mediated carbohydrate based production of silver nanomaterials is growing rapidly due to its simplicity, low cost, and eco-friendliness. The process is ideal for household use and has a wide range of applications in various industries. As the demand for silver nanomaterials continues to grow, it is expected that the market for household microwave-mediated carbohydrate based production of silver nanomaterials will continue to expand.
The Northwest Missouri State University invention works as follows
The invention provides a relatively inexpensive and simple method of synthesising silver nanoparticles in a short time period using a microwave oven or similar household appliance. The amount of energy required to heat the reaction is reduced, and organic reducing agents are replaced by natural products, such as purified carbohydrate (e.g. glucose, sucrose or fructose), or readily available forms (e.g. high fructose syrup, sucrose). The nanoparticles produced are separated from the silver ion, which is then captured for safe disposal of waste reaction mixture.
Background for Household microwave-mediated carbohydrate based production of Silver Nanomaterials
Nanotechnology” is also called “Nanoscience”. “Nanoscience, sometimes called?nanotechnology? The field of nanotechnology is a branch that focuses on controlling matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanoscience is a field that deals with materials and devices smaller than 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology has a wide range of potential applications. These include, for instance, the extension of traditional device physics and new approaches based on molecular self assembly, development of materials with nanoscale dimensions, prolongation cell viability, biological labeling for intracellular trafficking, organelle functions, and many other everyday applications, such as photography and reaction catalysis. Nanoscience is a popular study because it has the potential to produce many new materials and technologies with wide-ranging uses, including in medicine, electronics and energy production. Nanotechnology, however, raises the same concerns as any new technology. These include the environmental and toxicity impact of nanomaterials.
Silver nitrate (ionic silver) is a powerful antimicrobial agent that can kill bacteria, fungi and other germs. Ancient Greeks and Romans used silver in antiseptics during the pre-antibiotic period and kept liquids clean by storing them in silver jars. Ionic silver has since been restricted to photography and other non-health applications due to its cytotoxicity. Recent studies, however, have shown the effectiveness of silver nanoparticles in antiseptics against bacteria like E. coli, and viruses like the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. To maximize the antimicrobial effects of silver, it would be best to use silver-alloy or nanoparticles. Recent studies have also shown that silver nanoparticles in the right concentrations are safe for humans to use externally.
Various methods were used for the synthesis nanoparticles with metallic origins, including co-precipitation in aqueous solution, electrochemical methods (including reverse microemulsion), aerosols, chemical liquid depositions, photochemical reductions, chemical reductions in solutions, and UV radiation. As an example, traditional methods include the reduction of Ag+ using sodium borohydride or aldehyde with hydrazine as reductants, and also synthesis through a solvothermal method. The solvothermal process is laborious and difficult because it requires multiple reagents.
All of these methods are limited in their ability to control particle size or production on a large scale. Capping reagents such as poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) are commonly used to regulate the size and morphology of the nanoparticles synthesized. To counteract the hydrophobicity, many capping agents require an organic solvent, such as acetone or methanol. Many chelating agents are used to control the aggregation nanoparticles. However, many of these agents as well as the reagents mentioned above are toxic and harmful for humans and the environment. To eliminate the hazardous organic chemicals used in the process, a hydrothermal method has been developed that involves Ag NP synthesizing by reduction of Ag+ by using?-Dglucose within the nanoscopic templates formed by starch. This method, however, requires a minimum of twenty hours incubation time and uses starch as a stabilizing agent. “An expensive microwave-digestion-system-assisted polyol synthesis has been reported to accelerate the liquid-phase reactions in synthesizing microparticles.
Most of the current methods, including those that use expensive microwave synthesizers, require the use hazardous organic solvents and capping reagents. They also require the purging of reaction vessel with inert gas, or prolonged incubation. The presence of capping and stabilizing reagents can also interfere with the purification process of nanoparticles, reducing the yield and increasing the possibility of contamination by silver ion. The use of organic reagents and solvents in organic-aqueous solutions, as well as the organic capping reagents and disposal of unreacted ion, results in hazardous and expensive waste. “It is desirable to develop a method for preparing silver nanoparticles which does not involve the use of hazardous materials or their production and is also less expensive to produce.
The invention provides a relatively inexpensive and simple method to synthesize silver nanoparticles in a short time period using a microwave oven or similar household appliances. The amount of energy required to heat the reaction is reduced, and organic reducing agents are replaced by natural products, such as purified carbohydrate (e.g. glucose, sucrose or fructose), or readily available forms (e.g. high fructose syrup, sucrose). The nanoparticles produced are separated from the silver ion, which is then captured for safe disposal of waste reaction mixtures.
The chemical symbols used in this document are based on the systematic names of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The symbols Ag, Au and Co correspond to silver and gold respectively.
The following embodiments are described in detail to help the reader better understand the invention and its contributions. “There are of course other embodiments of the present invention which will be described in the following paragraphs and will form the subject of the claims attached hereto.
In this regard, it should be understood that the application of the invention does not limit itself to the construction details and the arrangement of the components described in the following description. The invention can be embodied in other ways than those described, and it can also be practiced in different ways. It is important to note that the terminology and phraseology used here, along with the abstract, were intended for description purposes only and are not meant to be taken as restrictive.
Those skilled in the art can readily appreciate that the concept upon which this disclosure rests may be used as a base for designing other structures, systems, and methods for carrying out the various purposes of the invention. It is therefore important that such equivalent constructions are included in the claims, as long as they do no depart from the spirit or scope of the invention. “Even though some features of the present invention may be claimed as dependent, each feature is valuable when used separately.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE VIEWS FROM THE DRAWING
The following description should be read with the accompanying drawings, which are part of the specification. They must also be read together.
FIG. “FIG. After being microwaved for an additional 10 seconds, the spectrum obtained revealed a redshift of “max to 510nm” in accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention.
FIG. “FIG. After an additional 10 seconds of microwaving, FIG. 1B shows a red shift in the?max wavelength to 575nm in accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention.
FIG. “FIG. According to one embodiment of the invention, FIG. 3A is a bar chart showing the size distribution of 100 silver nanoparticles.
FIG. “FIG. According to one embodiment of the invention, FIG.
FIG. “FIG. According to one embodiment of the invention, 4A and 4B are indicated by a line (264nm).
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