Invented by Paul Edward Stamets, Turtle Bear Holdings LLC, Mycosys LLC
The global market for Mycoattractants & Mycopesticides is expected to reach $1.4 billion by 2025, with a CAGR of 16.5% from 2020 to 2025. The increasing demand for organic and natural food products, coupled with the growing concern over the harmful effects of chemical pesticides on the environment and human health, is driving the growth of this market.
Mycoattractants are used to attract beneficial insects such as bees, ladybugs, and lacewings to the crops. These insects help in pollination, pest control, and soil health. Mycoattractants are made from natural compounds such as plant extracts, pheromones, and microorganisms. They are safe for humans, animals, and the environment, and do not leave any harmful residues on the crops.
Mycopesticides, on the other hand, are used to control harmful pests and diseases that can damage the crops. Mycopesticides are made from natural compounds such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses. They are effective against a wide range of pests and diseases, including aphids, mites, thrips, and powdery mildew. Mycopesticides are safe for humans, animals, and the environment, and do not leave any harmful residues on the crops.
The market for Mycoattractants & Mycopesticides is segmented by crop type, application, and region. The crop type segment includes fruits & vegetables, cereals & grains, and others. The application segment includes foliar spray, soil treatment, seed treatment, and others. The region segment includes North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa.
North America is the largest market for Mycoattractants & Mycopesticides, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. The increasing demand for organic and natural food products, coupled with the strict regulations on chemical pesticides, is driving the growth of this market in these regions.
The key players in the Mycoattractants & Mycopesticides market include Isagro S.p.A., Biobest Group NV, Novozymes A/S, Koppert Biological Systems, Certis USA LLC, Bayer AG, BASF SE, Syngenta AG, Marrone Bio Innovations Inc., and Valent BioSciences LLC.
In conclusion, the market for Mycoattractants & Mycopesticides is growing rapidly as more and more farmers and growers are looking for sustainable and eco-friendly solutions to protect their crops from pests and diseases. The increasing demand for organic and natural food products, coupled with the growing concern over the harmful effects of chemical pesticides on the environment and human health, is driving the growth of this market. The key players in this market are investing in research and development to develop new and innovative products to meet the growing demand from the farmers and growers.
The Turtle Bear Holdings LLC, Mycosys LLC invention works as follows
The present invention uses the preconidial mycelial stage (pre-sporulation) of entomopathogenic mushrooms as an insect attractant and/or pathogen. The fungus may be grown on wood, grain, agricultural wastes, or other cellulosic materials to attract insects and introduce pathogenic fungi specific to the insect. Combinations of more than one fungus can be used. The matrix of the preconidial mycelium can be optionally dried, freeze-dried and/or cooled, and/or pelletized, packaged, and reactivated to use as an insect attractant or biopesticide. The disclosure discloses extracts that are attractive to insects of preconidial mycelium.
Background for Mycoattractants & mycopesticides
The present invention is a combination of mycology and entomology. It relates to the use fungal myceliums as biopesticides and insect attractants. The invention is aimed at controlling and destroying insects such as termites, fireants, carpenterants, flies and beetles. It also includes cockroaches, grasshoppers, and other pests.
Insects represent one of the most diverse life forms on Earth. The majority of one million species of insect are beneficial. However, 1% to 5% of them are pests. The insect pests are responsible for a great deal of damage to crops, livestock, and human dwellings. They also carry pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoans that can cause serious health problems in humans. These pest insects have a wide range of impacts on the environment, including economic, social and environmental effects.
The use of chemical pesticides causes many environmental problems in addition to the death of the pest. Many of the problems associated with chemical pesticides can be attributed to their widespread use, which is caused by the lack of effective means to attract the targeted pests to the pesticide. “Communities are in increasing need of natural pest control solutions.
These problems are compounded by the fact that many vermin or pest insects have developed resistance to chemical insecticides. This means there are few pesticides available on the market which can be effective without repeated and thorough applications. Chemical pesticides are not only ineffective, but also difficult to use and expensive. They can also have adverse effects on non-target animals, leading to secondary pest outbreaks. The widespread use of broad spectrum insecticides can destroy or severely hamper the natural enemies that are present in pest species. This allows pest species to reinfest the area quicker than non-targeted species. Van Driesche R. G. & T. S. Bellows Jr. Biological Control. Chapman & Hall. 4?6 (1996). Introduced?alien’? exacerbated these problems. Insect pests like termites and fire ants have little or no natural enemy. “There is a special need for natural alternatives.
Biological control agents were tried with mixed results. Bacillus such as Bacillus Thuringiensis can be used to spray certain plants that are susceptible to insect infestation. As biopesticides, fungal control agents represent another promising class of insect pathogens. The development of these fungal control agents has been hampered by their limited availability, ineffective delivery systems, cost and reliability. The host range and specificity have been both a problem and an advantage. A fungal pathogen which is pathogenic and virulent to one insect species can be ineffective on other insects, even those closely related. “However, some success has already been demonstrated.
The typical life cycle of the entomopathogenic fungi (which can cause insect disease) is believed to include adhesion of spores to the insect’s cuticle, spore germinating, penetration of cuticle before growth in hemocoel occurs, death, saprophytic eating, hyphals re-emerging and sporulation. U.S. Pat. No. No. The compositions of Beauveria basseiana spores in dry powder and Beauveria basseiana spores/mycelium for the control of cockroaches, including fire ants, carpenter ants and pharaohs ants are disclosed. U.S. Pat. No. Beauveria basseiana is disclosed in Stimac’s 4,925,663 (90), which was filed to Stimac. Beauveria Bassiana can be used to control Solenopsis fire ants. The mixture of rice, mycelia, and spores can be used to control fire ants (Solenopsis) or as bait, and then carried into the nest. U.S. Pat. No. No. The patent discloses conidial controls of cockroaches and carpenter ants as well as pharaohs ants by using Beauveria basseiana strains grown on rice. U.S. Pat. No. 5,413,784 (1995) to Wright et al. The disclosures are compositions and methods for the control of boll weevils (sweet potato whiteflies), cotton fleahoppers and sweet potato whiteflies using Beauveria basseiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. U.S. Pat. No. 5,728,573 (1998) to Sugiura et al. The patent discloses entomogenous termiticides such as Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium amorpha and Beauveria lecanii, as well as germinated and rested spores. U.S. Pat. Nos. Nos. The disclosures include conidial formulations for Beauveria, and methods to control insects of the grasshoppers family. U.S. Pat. No. No. Paecilomyces fungus can also be used to control Dipteral, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. U.S. Pat. No. Eyal and others received No. The disclosure reveals prilled Paecilomyces fumosoroseus compositions that use mycelium produced via submerged fermentation in order to produce conidia for controlling various insects, including whiteflies and mosquitoes. U.S. Pat. No. Howell disclosed in 5,165,929 to Howell (1992) the use of Rhizopus Nigricans and other fungus from the order Mucorales for fungal ant killing. U.S. Pat. No. No. 5,989898 (1999), to Jin et. This patent is directed at packaged conidia of fungi, namely Metarhizium or Beauveria. “The scientific literature also discusses the similar use of conidial formulations.
The fungal life cycle may be sensitive to humidity, moisture, and water availability, especially during the stages after the death of the insect.
The U.S. Patent reveals a particular disadvantage of conidial preparations. No. 5,595,746 (1997) to Milner et al. Metarhizium anisopliae conidia are used as a repellant for termites in non-infested zones and as a control method for termites in infested zones. Conidia or conidia/mycelium can be used as baits and/or as contact insecticides, but the difficulties are evident when conidia is effective in repelling termites. It is obvious that a repellant does not make it easier to use as a contact or bait insecticide. It may explain why fungal insects are more effective in laboratories, where conidia can be present in the test chamber, or directly applied to insects.
U.S. Pat. No. Kern’s 5,888,989 (1998) discloses synergistic combination of conidia from entomopathogenic mushrooms such as Beauveria or Metarhizium, with insect compositions like silafluofen, etofenprox and imidacloprid. Also, carbamates, such as fenoxycarb, and phenylpyrazoles, such as fipronil, are disclosed. The repellency and use of conidia to transmit infection are still problems.
In laboratory and field testing, certain sexually reproducing brown rot fungi, such as Lenzites Trabea, dry rot and other fungi have been shown to influence termite behavior, showing attractant properties and eliciting trails-following. U.S. Patent. No. D’Orazio received 4,363,798 in 1982 for termite lures that used brown rot fungus mixed with toxic boron compounds as an attractant. U.S. Patent shows that the brown-rot fungus Lentinus lentinus and its aqueous extracts are extremely toxic to termites. No. No. Gloephyllum Trabeum, Oligoporous Balsameus, and Serpula Lacrimans are all known to produce substances in the lab that cause Rhinotermitidae to follow a trail. The sexually reproducing Zygomycetes Micromucor Ramannianus, as well as other fungi living with Reticulitermes, have been shown to produce phagostimulatory effects (feeding stimulation) and phagodeterrent. U.S. Pat. No. No. “However, it remains a requirement for improved pesticides and fungal attractants.
The fresh, dried, and rehydrated mycelium from entomopathogenic mushrooms has been used as a source of spores in the lab and on the field. You can see, for instance, the U.S. Patents above where conidia is directly or indirectly grown from liquid fermentor or solid substrate mycelium. Mycelium from pre-sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium lilacinus has been used in agricultural fields to combat pests such as the black vine weevil (Chrysoteuchiatopiaria), the cranberry Girdler (Chrysoteuchiatopiaria), the sod webworm, the rice brown planthopper and the stem borer. Booth and Shanks Jr. Potential of a Dry Rice/Mycelium formulation of Entomopathogenic fungi to Suppress Underground Pests in Small Fruits. Biocontrol Science and technology, 8: pp. Rombach et. al., Infection by field application of Entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycotina, of the Rice Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata Lugens (Homoptera, Delphacidae), Environmental Entomology 15(5): pp. 999-1110 (1986); Maniania, Assessment of three formulations containing Beauveria basseiana (Bals.). Vuill. Control of the stem borer Chilo partillus (Swinhoe), Journal of Applied Entomology 115: pp. 266?272 (1993). The pre-sporulation vegetative fungus has also been studied with Entomophthorales, such as Zoophthora Radicans. This fungus produces fragile, thin-walled, spores which are difficult to produce in large quantities, harvest, and formulate at an industrial scale. Mycelium that is applied to soil or crops produces spores which infect pests. U.S. Patent. No. 4,530,834 (1985) to McCabe et al. “Pre-sporulation mycelium from Hirsutella Citriformis was also used in the field because conidia are difficult to grow due to low sporulation, slime production by the mycelium, and irregular growth patterns.
The inconsistency of bait acceptance is another problem that continues to plague existing pest control techniques, including those used against social insects. Social insects, such as carpenter and termites, are difficult to attract and will often ignore baits. This is a problem that may arise with termites, carpenterants and other insects, which are harder to attract than house ants or cockroaches. Attractants such as pheromones or feeding stimulants can sometimes increase the consistency of bait acceptability. However, they are expensive and complex. There is a need for better baits that have improved acceptance.
There is a need to improve attractants and lures in general. It is necessary to continue improving the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus biopesticides and methods, and increasing the attractiveness of these fungal pesticides for insects. It is also necessary to improve packaging, shipping, and delivery methods.
The present invention, in view of the disadvantages of known insect control agents that are inherent to them, provides improved fungal biocontrol agent and methods for using such agents.
The present invention provides an environmentally benign method of insect control, by attracting insects to contact or ingest preconidial? mycelium of mycopesticidal/entomopathogenic fungi (that is, mycelium in a developmental state prior to conidia or spore formation). Preconidial fungi may be used as a pathogen and as an insect attractant. When social insects are infected with mycopesticidal attractant strains, they become vectors back to the colony and spread the mycelium. Preconidial mycopesticidal fungus can be spread from one insect to another or to organic debris and then infect insects. Multiple avenues for growth and infection can be provided, while avoiding the alleged ‘necessity’ of conidia germination as a means of infection. Conidia germination is not necessary for infection.
The preconidial mycelium from mycopesticidal mushrooms is propagated in pure culture by standard in vitro techniques. Mycelia will mature to a stage prior to conidia once inoculated on a substrate like grain or wood. The utility window extends from the post-spore stage through to all mycelial stages prior to sporulation. Preconidial mycelium can be used as-is or it can be stopped in its growth by means like flash chilling or freeze-drying or air-drying or refrigeration or gaseous-cooled and packaged in spoilage proof or sealed packages. The user opens the package, and places the mycelia in the area of pest activity. Extracts of preconidial fungi may be used as attractants. The pesticides and/or fungal attractants may be used with any appropriate trap, attractant disseminator, or delivery system known in the art.
The present invention provides products and methods that are improved where the mycelium of the fungus acts as food, attractant, and/or contact or ingested insecticide. It is palatable enough for insects to readily consume, even when competing food sources are available, and this behavior results in a high recruitment rate of other insects. This leads to multiple visits by insects and/or colonies to an attractive (and potentially dangerous) food.
The present invention provides additional advantages, such as improved control of insects pests by using fungal compositions with strong attractant properties (mycopesticides and mycoattractants), and by placing these preconidial attractant fungi around or in an object or area that needs to be protected. The present invention provides insecticidal food and baits that use, as an active agent, relatively harmless and naturally occurring materials to control insects. The present invention also provides attractants that can be used with biocontrol agents and environmentally benign biopesticides. Chemical control agents include insect toxicants and pesticides. Physical control agents like mechanical and electrical devices, and combinations thereof.
The use of conidia can be avoided, as it is unnecessary to raise conidial mycelium or separate conidia.
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